Question 3. Page 479
There were a few gains for freed black citizens during the Reconstruction. First and formost, obviously, are the Fourteenth and Fifteenth ammendments of the constitution. The Fourteenth amendment was passed in 1866 and ratified in 1868. This was a form of federal law that prohibeted states from violating the rights of their citizens. The Fifteenth Amendment passed in 1869 and was ratified in 1870. This Amendment prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection, public transportation, and public accommodations. While the Fouteenth Amendment stregnthened the Civil Rights act of 1866, the Fifteenth Amendment was rarely enforced and was actually overturned by the Supreme Court in 1883 after being ruled "unconstitutional". During this time frame people within the black community were able to build churches and schools. Education and belief held crucial roles in holding black people together as communities. Self-help and lobor organizations offered friendship and financial assistance.
Also the black communities did gain in finances. Through share cropping and other ventures, some black people were able to bring in modererate incomes. Due to overwhelming bigetry in the South many of the skilled black men migrated north where their skills could be used. Because of this the majority of black citizens remained poor farmers. Also blacks were given the right to vote in most states sue to the Fourteenth amendment.
Question 4. Page 479.
I think the black children had to fight so that the white children saw that as a group, they were determined to overcome injustice and partake in their rights as citizens. If the black children had never fought back against the white children, the persecution would have intensified. Due to years of ingrained opression, it was important that the black children thought as themselves as free citizens with the same rights as anyone else. It was also important that the white children see that a group of black individuals were no longer an oppressed slave race, but an empowered group. Certainly civil rights would still be abused for years to come, and many times such altercations did not have a good outcome in the racially divided South